I've always been fascinated by mafia/cosa nostra/mob "stuff".
So apparently, for his era, Frank Cali was really fast moving up the ranks in the Gambino Family after first becoming a 'made man' in 1997 at 31 years old. He has been connected to organized crime since the 80s, and what makes him particularly interesting is that the FBI has reported that he is actively 'made' in both US and Sicilian crime families due to ties through his wife, who has close family ties with high-ranking Sicilian mafiosos in Palermo. The FBI apparently doesn't have knowledge of any individuals who have ever had transcontinental mob relations like Cali did.
Cali was also very conscious of how he conducted business after becoming an underboss and later boss within the family. He didn't own a cell phone. He rarely spoke on the phone in his house. If you wanted to talk to him, or if he wanted to talk to you, it was always done in person. That enabled him to avoid any wiretapping. His meetings also were reported to have always taken place at a randomly selected location with very few locations that were repeated often, if at all.
Gambino boss Paul Castellano was in charge from 1976-1985 when he was whacked by John Gotti, due largely to being too much of a "straight businessman" and not directing the organization that pursued enough of the money to be made in the underground and illegal activities usually associated with the mafia.
John Gotti took over as boss in 1985. He was arrested in 1990 and charged with racketeering, with five counts of murder, one count of conspiracy to murder, loansharking, illegal gambling, obstruction of justice, bribery and tax evasion. He was convicted on all charges in 1992 and sentenced to life in prison with no possibility for parole. Gotti continued to act as Don until 1999 when his older brother, Peter "One Eyed Pete" Gotti took over as acting boss.
Peter Gotti moved from acting boss to the official Don of the Gambino family in 2001 when John Gotti's imminent death from throat cancer became obvious in 2001. Peter was arrested and charged with conspiracy to murder, racketeering, extortion, attempted extortion, and money laundering less than a week before John's died of his cancer in prison. Peter wold be convicted in 2002 to life in prison, with earliest chance of parole in 2032, at which point Peter will be 93 years old.
With Peter Gotti in prison, Arnold "Squiggy" Squitieri would take over as acting boss of the Gambinos in 2002. He lasted until early 2005 when he was arrested on charges of extortion, conducting an illegal gambling operation and tax evasion. He was convicted to 7 years in prison in mid-2006.
When Squitieri was arrested in 2005, he was promptly replaced as the acting boss of the Gambino family by Jon "Jackie" D'Amico, who had recently been released from prison himself. D'Amico was arrested in 2008 and charged with drug trafficking, racketeering and extortion. He made a deal to plead guilty on one charge of extortion in exchange for a lighter prison sentence. He was sentenced to 2 years in prison.
After D'Amico went to prison, there was no known acting boss of the Gambino family for almost 3 years, with the official Gambino boss, Peter Gotti still in prison himself and close to 80 years old. It's unclear whether or not Peter Gotti formally stepped down as official boss, or if he was just superseded due to age and his imprisonment, but by mid-2011, reports surfaced that D'Amico's underboss, Domenico "Italian Dom" Cefalý, had been named the official boss of the Gambino crime family. Cefalý had a reputation as being an old-school mobster, and ran the family until 2015 at which point he stepped down as Don.
Francesco "Franky Boy" Cali, who had reportedly been D'Amico's initial choice to replace him as boss upon his arrest in 2011, had turned down the role and instead became Cefalý's underboss once Cefalý became Don. When Cefalý' stepped down as the Gambino family boss in 2015, Cali officially became Don.